1. Supragingival cleaning – The dental hygienist will thoroughly clean the area above the gum line with scaling tools to remove plaque and calculus.
2. Subgingival cleaning – This is the most important step for patients with periodontal disease because calculus from the gum pockets and under the gum line is removed.
3. Root planning – This is the smoothing of the tooth root by the dentist or dental hygienist to eliminate any remaining bacteria. These bacteria are extremely dangerous to periodontal patients.
4. Medication – Following scaling and root planning, the pockets are irrigated with an antibiotic rinse such as chlorohexidine.
5. X-ray and examination – Routine X-rays can be extremely revealing when it comes to periodontal disease. X-rays show the extent of bone and gum recession, and also aid the dentist in identifying areas which may need future attention.